Tuesday, March 15, 2011

EARTH (QUAKE)ZONES OF INDIA - THE NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS-AND DANGER FROM RADIATION[INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM INTERNET]





Seismic zoning Map of India

                                          Seismic zonation map of India

,[ Zone V (MARKED RED)is seismically the most active where     earthquakes of magnitude 8 or more could     occur]--.SOUTH MAHARASHTRA IS MARKED DANGER ZONE 4 .IT IS NEAR TO KOYNA DAM

C-MMACS has developed the first seismic map of India. The map shows
the spatial distribution of the design ground acceleration in g

                               




The Latur (Killari), Maharashtra, earthquake of September 30, 1993 is the most devastating SCR earthquake in the world.Its epicentre was located in a region considered to be aseismic


ASEISMIC MEANS WHERE THERE IS NO CHANCE OF EARTHQUAKE


LATUR WAS UNDER ASEISMIC ZONE ;


BUT STILL A TERRIBLE EARTH QUAKE HAPPENED THERE IN 1993


.
This earthquake occurred in the typical rural setting of India. The severity of the destruction was compounded by the nature of village settlements. While most of the engineered structures survived the earthquake, the non-engineered ones were totally damaged.
Over 10,000 lives were lost in this earthquake and several villages were destroyed. With a magnitude 6.3 and focal depth less than 10 km, this earthquake is similar to other moderate events in the Australian and Canadian shields.
It is suggested that the repeat time of moderate SCR earthquakes are of the order of hundreds of thousands of years. The recurrence interval at Latur may also be of the same order, and the recorded human history may not document any previous earthquakes. Thus, we have very little information about the earthquake history of such regions and the earthquakes occur as a total surprise.
This event led to several studies, giving a new perspective to seismic hazard assessment in the peninsular India. It also led to strengthening of the seismic network, upgrading several existing facilities





The Latur earthquake generated a surface rupture that was traceable for about 2 km. The maximum height of the scarp observed near Killari was about one metre. Several geological studies conducted in this deformation zone by various agencies provided valuable information about the seismogenic characyeristics of this important fault zone in the Stable Continental Region

                                                                        The Indian subcontinent                                                      
The Himalayan frontal arc is one of the seismically active regions of the world.
The peninsular shield of India has generated some remarkable earthquakes. The Latur earthquake in the heart of the Indian shield is considered as a typical SCR earthquake.
The largest earthquake induced by an artificial reservoir occurred at Koyna, Maharashtra.
The 1819 Runn of Kutch earthquake (M ~ 8.0) is one of the largest intraplate events that produced a surface scarp about 100 km long.


                                                             Jabalpur  earthquake http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/oct25/articles29.htm
earthquake of magnitude 6.0 occurred on May 22,1997 in the Jabalpur area, Madhya Pradesh

This earthquake which caused widespread devastation in and around Jabalpur left 48 people dead and many injured and homeless
The earthquake generated a great deal of data that helped to understand  the response of various types of structures, offering valuable  guidelines in the design and construction of earthquake resistant structures
The spatial association of the Jabalpur earthquake with the Narmada-Son lineament has triggered a lot of interest from the seismotectonic point of view
                                                 BHUJ earth quake:-
he Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) ofthe State of Gujarat, is the most January 26, 2001, that occurred in disastrous earthquake in India’s history. While the actual figures of death and injury remain uncertain, going by the official figures, at least 20,000 people were dead and more than 200,000 were injured. Nearly 400,000 houses destroyed and twice as much damaged 

the 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake (M 6.5) which occurred in the Tehri  region in Gharwal Himalaya shook the north-central India
This earthquake, a moderate one, attracted a lot of attention due to its   proximity to the high Tehri dam
This event killed many people and damaged completely or partially  about 48,000 houses
                                                       Induced seismicity at Koyna
Seismicity associated with the Shivaji Sagar lake formed by the Koyna dam is considered to be a classic example of earthquake activity triggered by reservoirs.
Over hundred cases of reservoir induced seismicity have been reported from all over the world.
Koyna is among the four cases that have generated earthquakes of magnitude >6.0. An earthquake of magnitude 6.3 (1967) and many of magnitude >5.0, have occurred at Koyna.
Seismicity at Koyna shows remarkable correlations with the filling cycles in the reservoir. It is believed that the pore pressure changes induced by the reservoir reduces the strength of the rocks leading to failure along a major fault zone in the vicinity of the dam.
                                Seismicity of the Himalaya

The Himalayan mountain range is the dramatic outcome of the collision of Indian and Eurasian plates, some 40 million years ago.
The Indian plate is still penetrating deeper at an estimated rate of about 5 cm/year.
The Himalayan collision zone has been marked by intense seismic activity.
Four great earthquakes (1897 Assam,1905 Kangra; 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam) occurred here in a short span of 53 years.
The frequent moderate earthquakes and the infrequent great earthquakes suggest that episodic slippage is continuing.
These ongoing processes----
------------------------------also imply that future great earthquakes can be expected----








 --in the unruptured parts of the Himalayan front. Major uncertainties remain regarding the recurrence interval of great earthquakes
                                                        


                                   
                                FROM INTERNET--[CLICK AND READ ON EACH]

1

A

C

G



s





                                            Major Earthquakes in India



DATE LOCATION MAGNITUDE TOTAL DEATH
2004 DEC 26 OFF WEST COAST OF SUMATRA 9.3 2,25,000*
1897 JUN 12 SHILLONG PLATEAU 8.7 NA
1950 AUG 15 ARUNACHAL PRADESH-CHINA BORDER 8.5 NA
1934 JAN 15 BIHAR-NEPALBORDER 8.3 10,700
1941 JUN 26 ANDAMAN ISLANDS 8.1 NA
1819 JUN 16 KUTCH,GUJARAT 8 NA
1905 APR 04 KANGRA, H.P 8 19,000
2001 JAN 26 BHUJ , GUJARAT 7.7 21,000
1918 JUL 08 SRIMANGAL, ASSAM 7.6 NA
2005 OCT 08 PAKISTAN 7.6 85000*
1869 JAN 10 NEAR CACHAR, ASSAM 7.5 NA
1943 OCT 23 ASSAM 7.2 NA
1930 JUL 02 DHUBRI, ASSAM 7.1 NA
1885 MAY 30 SOPOR, J&K 7 NA
1956 JUL 21 ANJAR, GUJARAT 7 NA
1999 MAR 29 CHAMOLI DIST, UP 6.8 NA
1988 AUG 06 MANIPUR-MYANMAR BORDER 6.6 1,000
1991 OCT 20 UTTARKASHI, UP HILLS 6.6 2,000
1967 DEC 10 KOYNA, MAHARASHTRA 6.5 NA
1988 AUG 21 BIHAR-NEPAL BORDER 6.4 NA
1993 SEP 30 LATUR-OSMANABAD, MAHARASHTRA 6.3 10,000
1975 JAN 19 KINNAUR, HP 6.2 NA
1997 MAY 22 JABALPUR,MP 6 NA


                                      


                                      HISTORY OF VOLCANOES IN DECCAN[MID- INDIA]:-

The Deccan Traps formed between 60 and 68 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period. The bulk of the volcanic eruption occurred at the Western Ghats (near Mumbai) some 66 million years ago. This series of eruptions may have lasted less than 30,000 years in total.
The original area covered by the lava flows is estimated to have been as large as 1.5 million km², approximately half the size of modern India. The Deccan Traps region was reduced to its current size by erosion and plate tectonics; the present area of directly observable lava flows is around 512,000 km2 (197,684 sq mi).


A series of monumental volcanic eruptions in India may have killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, not a meteor impact in the Gulf of Mexico. The eruptions, which created the gigantic Deccan Traps lava beds of India, are now the prime suspect in the most famous and persistent paleontological murder mystery, say scientists who have conducted a slew of new investigations honing down eruption timing.
"It's the first time we can directly link the main phase of the Deccan Traps to the mass extinction," said Princeton University paleontologist Gerta Keller. The main phase of the Deccan eruptions spewed 80 percent of the lava which spread out for hundreds of miles. It is calculated to have released ten times more climate altering gases into the atmosphere Keller's crucial link between the eruption and the mass extinction comes in the form of microscopic marine fossils that are known to have evolved immediately after the mysterious mass extinction event. The same telltale fossilized planktonic foraminifera were found at Rajahmundry near the Bay of Bengal, about 1000 kilometers from the center of the Deccan Traps near Mumbai.
At Rajahmundry there are two lava "traps" containing four layers of lava each. Between the traps are about nine meters of marine sediments. Those sediments just above the lower trap, which was the mammoth main phase, contain the incriminating microfossils.
Previous work had first narrowed the Deccan eruption timing to within 800,000 years of the extinction event using paleomagnetic signatures of Earth's changing magnetic field frozen in minerals that crystallized from the cooling lava. Then radiometric dating of argon and potassium isotopes in minerals narrowed the age to within 300,000 years of the 65-million-year-old Cretaceous-Tertiary (a.k.a. Cretaceous-Paleogene) boundary, sometimes called the K-T boundary.
"It's been an enigma," Keller said. "The very last one was Early Danian, 280,000 years after the mass extinction, which coincides with the delayed recovery."
 

  
                                                                                        DEPARTMENT of  Geology,  Pune University,  Pune,  INDIA

Well-documented geological data (from both field and satellite) in the Deccan Volcanic Provinces (DVP) in and around the Dalvat region, Nasik District, India has been analysed by Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and reported in this paper so as to relate the geology and structures with recent seismicity. It has been the belief among earth scientists that the Deccan Traps in Maharashtra, India is tectonically stable as the region attained solidity long ago. However, recent activity in the study area altered this concept and it is now accepted that seismic activity is still continuing on a mild scale. As such, the need has arisen to take into consideration historical as well as recent geological data to study in detail the tectonic setup in the Deccan Traps. Using the well-known relationship between the shear zone, lineaments, and geomorphology, and incorporating these with tectonic events


                  HOT SPRINGS IN MAHARASHTRA

The seismicity map of Peninsular India from historical times up to 1990 for earthquakes of magnitude  3.5 indicates a striking correlation between seismicity and thermal springs
                 List of volcanoes in India

                                       Mainland India:-

Name Elevation Location Last eruption
meters feet Coordinates
Deccan Traps -- -- 18°31′N 73°26′E / 18.51°N 73.43°E / 18.51; 73.43 65 mya

                   

Andaman Islands

Name Elevation Location Last eruption
meters feet Coordinates
Barren Island 354 1161 12°16′41″N 93°51′29″E / 12.278°N 93.858°E / 12.278; 93.858 2009
Baratang 28 93 12°N 93°E / 12°N 93°E / 12; 93 2005
Narcondam 710 2329 13°26′N 94°17′E / 13.43°N 94.28°E / 13.43; 94.28 Holocene


Mud volcano in Baratang island



barren island volcano-Andaman island

Deccan Plateau
Map showing distribution of Deccan lavas and associated intrusives in the Western and Central India
 


                                                 A view of Mahabaleshwar 


The volcanic basalt beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive Deccan Traps eruption,

 which occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous period between 67 and 65 million years ago. Some paleontologists speculate that this eruption may have accelerated the extinction of the dinosaurs. Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted many thousands of years, and when the volcanoes became extinct, 


                      Deccan Trap lava Formations of the Western Ghats.-

The lava pile has a maximum thickness of over 1.5 km in the western parts of India
Subgroup Formation Thickness 

                                              1  Desur 
                                              2   Panhala
                                             3Wai Mahabaleshwar
                                             4  Ambenali
                                                5    Poladpur 
                                               6  Lonavala Bushe 
                                                7  Khandala
                                                    8   Bhimashankar
                                             9 Thakurvadi
                                                   10Neral 
                                            11Kalsubai Igatpuri 
                                                        12 Jawahar

                         lava flow at Daund

A hummocky flow characterised by the presence of toes, lobes, tumuli and possible lava tube system is exposed near Daund, western Deccan Volcanic Province, India. The lava tube system is exposed as several exhumed outcrops and is composed of complex branching and discontinuous segments. The roof of the lava tube has collapsed but original lava tube walls and fragments of the tube roof are seen at numerous places along the tube. At some places the tube walls exhibit a single layer of lava lining, whereas, at other places it shows an additional layer characterised by smooth surface and polygonal cracks. The presence of a branching and meandering lava tube system in the Daund flow, which represents the terminal parts of Thakurwadi Formation, shows that the hummocky flow developed at a low local volumetric flow rate. This tube system developed in the thinner parts of the flow sequence; and tumuli developed in areas where the tube clogged temporarily in the sluggish flow.
                          




BELOW PHOTO SHOWS  LAVA FLOW NEAR PUNE(POONA)

Angular rubble blocks occurring near the upper surface of a typical a`a flow exposed in Diveghat area, Pune district
Lava toes exposed in Girna River bed in Nasik district, Maharashtra
In addition to the two lava flow types described above, few Deccan Lava flows share characters of a`a and pahoehoe types and thus they have been rather loosely described as “mixed flows”. Based on the distribution of predominant lava flow types, the DVP can be divided into two parts viz. areas with dominantly compound/ pahoehoe flows and area with simple / a`a flows.
Distribution of predominantly pahoehoe /compound and a`a/ simple flows in the Deccan Volcanic Province
The presence of vesicles in the lava flows is due to escape of gases during the process of cooling and solidification. These vesicles are either empty or host many varieties of secondary minerals such as zeolites, quartz, calcite etc. in them
A large vesicle hosting a variety of secondary/ cavity minerals. Location: Tamhani Ghat
Irrespective of the flow types, the lavas show various types of joints and fractures. Many of these joints have resulted during cooling of hot lava.
Columnar joints in lava flow from the DVP. Location: Near Kolhapur
A planar view of the columnar joints in a Lava flow. Location: Ajanta
The fractures are largely ‘post-cooling’ in age and tectonic in origin. Many a times, these fracture zones guide the development of drainages and ridges and are traceable over long distances. As a result of water and wind action facilitated by the jointed characters of the rockmass as well as the process of scarp retreat, spectacular land forms such as potholes, spheroidal weathering, mesas, buttes, spinacles etc have been carved out from the lava pile.
Fracture zones cutting across the Deccan lava pile exposed in Malshej Ghat, Thane district
Fracture zones/ master joints cutting across the Deccan Trap escarpment in Kalsubai ranges, Ahamadnagar district, Maharashtra
Spheroidal weathering in a Deccan lava flow. Location: Katraj Ghat, Pune District
A series of mesas and buttes from Trimbakeshwar hill, Nasik district.
To an unaided eye, the lava flow is usually light to dark grey, fine to medium grained rock with aphyric (without identifiable minerals) to phyric (with identifiable minerals/phenocrysts) texture. Sometimes the rock contains crystals (mainly plagioclase feldspar-an aluminosilicate) as large as 2cm or even more and is called a "megacrystic basalt" or "Giant Plagioclase Basalt (GPB)".


A negative impression of a dyke formed due to its preferred/ higher erosion than the lava flows. Location: Sakri, Dhule district, Maharashtra
The pyroclastic component of the Deccan Province is represented by bright red to green to khaki horizons that occur between successive lava flows at many places.
A red pyroclastic "interflow horizon" from Panhala road section, Kolhapur district, Maharashtra
Photomicrograph of a typical mineral assemblage and textural features in a red pyroclastic "interflow horizon"






 



A sinus lava channel at Gunjale, Ahamadnagar district, Maharashtra



Although the DVP does not host any conventional mineral deposits, the lava flows have been proved to be ideal sites for Buddhist and Jain monuments that date from 2000 BC to 500 AD. The strategic importance of the hillocks was well understood and exploited by the Yadava as well as Maratha kings to build more than 350 forts in different parts of their kingdoms.
A panoramic view of Ajanta caves, carved out of a compound flow.
Kailash temple, Ellora Caves, a marvelous rock cut architecture in a compound flow.
Now-a-days, the cavity minerals hosted by the lava flows have attracted the attention of mineral collectors and many of these minerals have been displayed in museums world over.

Source: Central Region, GSI

 Gilbert Hill is a 60 m (197 ft) monolith column of black basalt rock in Andheri, in Mumbai,India. The rock has a sheer vertical face and was formed when molten lava was squeezed out of the Earth's clefts during the Mesozoic Era about 65 million years ago. During that era, molten lava had spread around most of the Indian states of MaharashtraGujarat andMadhya Pradesh, covering an area of 50,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi). Thevolcanic eruptions were also responsible for the destruction of plant and animal life during that era.



Gilbert Hill, a monolith column of Black Basalt


 

                                                                           -MUMBAI BOMBAY-PRONE FOR EARTH QUAKE
                                






Mumbai lies over more than 10 seismic fault lines (black lines in the map). Major fault lines lie along the Thane creek, Ulhas river, the Manori and Malad creeks and the lakes. To the west, a fault line stretches from Colaba to Vasai, touching Malabar hill.




A major junction of three faults, the Thane, Panvel and Dharamtar creeks lies close to the Oil and Natural Gas Commission's oil plant in Uran in New Mumbai.






The coastal plain to the east of Mumbai is prone to earthquakes of even higher intensity, upto 7.5-- 










---on the Richter scale. 
Mumbai lies over more than 10 seismic fault lines (black lines in the map)






                                    BOMBAY EARTH QUAKES IN THE PAST:-

Year Month Intensity (MMI)/Magnitude (R)
1618 May IX MAGNITUDE (9) IS VERY VERY SEVERE EARTH QUAKE LUCKLY BEFORE CITY WAS MADE
1832 Oct VI MAGNITUDE(7) IS SEVERE EARTH QUAKE
1906 March VI MAGNITUDE (6) IS ALSO SEVERE
1929 February V MAGNITUDE (5)
1933 July V MAGNITUDE (5)
1951 April VIII MAGNITUDE (8) VERY SEVERE
1966 May V (5)
1967 April 4.5 (R)
1967 June 4.2 (R)
1993 September 6.4 (R)
1998 May 3.8
2005 March 5.1
2005 June 3.7
2005 August 4.1


                                              Some recorded tsunamis in India:

Date
Location
1524
1762

1819
1847
1881
1883
1941
1945
 
Near Dabhol, Maharashtra
West Bengal and Orissa due to quake at Arakan Coast, Myanmar
West coast of India due to quake at Rann of Kutch, Gujarat
Great Nicobar Island
Car Nicobar Island
On the east coast, due to Krakatoa eruption
On the east coast due to eruptions at Andaman Islands
On the west coast of India including Mumbai due to a quake at Merkan Coast, Baluchistan

Beginning around 55 million year ago, the northward moving Indian plate collided with the Asian plate. The northward movement was met by resistance from the Asian continent and so the Indian continent has been under compressional stresses since. At first, the thought that a continental collision in northern India can have an effect on earthquakes in south Maharashtra about 1500 kms away seems absurd, but two types of evidence are available. The first is the nature of the earthquakes themselves. The mechanism of earthquakes are investigated by deriving a fault plane solution, which is an analysis of particle motions in the earth during the passage of the P or longitudinal waves which radiate in all direction from the hypocentre. The hypocentre is the point of origin of the earthquake and coincides with the point in the fault where the first slip of the rock masses occur. So, a fault plane solution tells us the direction of motion of the rocks along the fault. Such as analysis on the Koyna earthquake (Rao et al 1974) and the Killari earthquake (Mandal et al 1997, Gahalaut et al 2002) shows that the slip in case of Koyna is a strike-slip motion (rocks move past each other with very little vertical motion) while in the case of Killari it is a reverse thrust motion (fault block on the hanging wall move up relative to the footwall). Both these types of motions indicate compressive stresses.The India tectonic plate has been drifting and moving in a north/northeast direction, for millions of years colliding with the Eurasian tectonic plate and forming the Himalayan Mountains.
(USGS graphic showing the migration of the Indian tectonic plate)

Power Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde said Govt will take "all precautions"
Former chairman of Atomic Energy Commission Anil Kakodkar "assured"    







                            Dr A. Gopalakrishnan, outgoing chairman of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB),


 posed the  question last fortnight, the response was general alarm. “Many of our nuclear installations have aged with time and have serious problems. Our efforts to find indigenous solutions, despite our capabilities, are not well-organised or focused,” he said while demitting office on June 16, and accused the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of having “uniquely failed in bringing together these strengths and coordinating them for the benefit of the nuclear sector” (Outlook)




                               Kalpakkam was hit by the tsunami in December 2004, but the reactors were safe.



TSUNAMI MEMORIAL PARK AT KALPAKKAM

When the wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases.

The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits land. Only the largest waves crest



Wave animation showing the initial "drawback" of surface water
.

KALPAKKAM NUCLEAR STATION NEAR SEA SHORE
TSUNAMI WATER IN TOWN -at Kalpakkam, the atomic energy township 80 kilometres south of Chennai,



               1755 Tsunami Affecting Portugal and Much of Europe 
On November 1st 1755, one of the biggest earthquakes in history occurred in the Atlantic Ocean just of the coast of the Portuguese capital city of Lisbon.  The total duration of shaking lasted ten minutes and was comprised of three distinct jolts.  Scientists estimate that the earthquake was in the range of 9.0 on the Richter scale, which caused extensive damage throughout Lisbon.  Surprisingly, the events that unfolded from this disaster has been well-documented. 
After the earthquake, survivors rushed to the open space of the docks for safety and watched as the water receded, revealing the sea floor, littered by lost cargo and old shipwrecks.  About 35 minutes after the initial earthquake, an enormous tsunami engulfed the Portuguese harbor and the city’s downtown.  Two other tsunamis followed to add to more devastation to the already suffering area.  Effects from the earthquake and tsunamis were far reaching.  The worst damage occurred in the south-west of Portugal, which included Lisbon.  The tsunami reached, with less intensity, the coast of Spain, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Belgium and Holland.  In Madeira and in the Azores islands damage was extensive and many ships were in danger of being wrecked.  In total, over 100,000 people were killed, with most fatalities incurred in Lisbon, where over a third of the population were instantaneously wiped out.  This tragic disaster served as the impetus for earthquake research in the world



          List of tsunamis generated due to earthquakes/volcanic eruptions that affected Indian
                               region and vicinity in the Indian Ocean-


[1]   326 B.C. Indus delta /Kutch region Alexander’s navy destroyed.
Massive sea waves in the Arabian Sea due to large earthquake.

[2]   416 AD Java-Sumatra Probably the 416 A.D. Krakatau eruption/explosion/collapse
generated a series of catastrophic tsunamis affected Tamilnadu, which must have been much greater than those generated in 1883.
[3]     500 AD Poompuhar,Tamilnadu Poompuhar town was swallowed by the sea;was  a flourishing ancient town known (probably due to Krakatau eruption) .TOWN OF  Kaveripattinam that was washed away due to tsunami generated probably due to Krakatau eruption

[4] 900 AD NagapattinamTamilnadu (may be fromSunda-Andaman arc)
Tsunami waves had washed away the Budhist monastery and several temples and killed hundreds of
people. 
[5] 1008 Iranian Coast  Tsunami has been observed in the North Indian Ocean on the Iranian 
coast from a local earthquake.




   
                                          6] 1524 Dabhol,Maharashtra 






 Tsunami due to a large earthquake caused considerable alarm to the Bendick
and Portugese fleet assembled in the area




.                              -near the proposed jaitapur nuclear station



[7 ]May 1668 Samaji – Delta  The town of Samawani (or Samaji) Oldham of Indus sunk into the ground with 30,000 (1883)houses during an earthquake.
[8] 1762.Bangladesh (Bay of Bengal)  The earthquake of Bangladesh also caused a tsunami in the Bay of
Bengal. The water in the Hoogly River in Kolkata rose by two meters. The rise in the water level  at Dhaka was so sudden that hundreds of boats capsized and many people were drowned


[22] 1945. Makran Coast More than 4000 people were killed on the Makran Coast by both the
earthquake and the tsunami. Max.run up 17m. 


The height of the tsunami in Mumbai was 2m.


A total of 15 persons were washed away in Mumbai


Tsunami Uncovers Ancient Indian City












A diver explores the ruins
A diver explores the ruins
A large stone lion, one of the artifacts found at the site
A large stone lion,
one of the artifacts found at the site
February 27, 2005

Stone structures that are “clearly man-made” and apparently part of an ancient city are being explored by divers off the southern coast of India.
The divers are part of an archaeological survey.
The strucures were spotted by residents as the ocean water receded just before the tsunami struck.
"We've found some stone structures which are clearly man-made," said Alik Tripathi, the expedition leader. "They're perfect rectangular blocks, arranged in a clear pattern."
Officials believe that the structures could be from the 7th century coastal city of Mahaaliuram. 

                               ANOTHER -Ancient city lies underwater                                                    Poompuhar was the capital of the Chola rulers,
a Tamil dynasty with a recorded history dating to the second century B.C. It was a place where silk merchants and grain traders set sail for the Far East, Greece and Egypt, archaeologists say.
The town had special enclaves for foreign visitors and the king's soldiers. In the streets, languages could be heard from around the world. It was dotted with temples, a sign of a prosperous Hindu kingdom.
But the ancient city now lies under water about two miles offshore. All that remains are a few temples and the modern town, which consists of about 2,000 fishing families.
Undersea excavations and studies by historians show that Poompuhar grew during the reign of Karikal Cholan, the second-century Chola king who established trade ties with China, Arabia and the Roman Empire.
Remnants of brick buildings, water reservoirs, a boat jetty and Roman coins have been found during undersea excavations.
The archaeologists' findings are supported by ancient Tamil literature, which has frequent references to Poompuhar.

                                                                      Masilamani Nathar Koil:
This temple built in 1305 by Maravarma Kulasekara Pandiyan exhibits outstanding architectural skills. The front portion of the temple has been partly damaged due to Sea-erosion

             This ancient Thirupallavaneeswaram Temple is one of the few remnants of ancient Poompuhar, which was a thriving capital city until it was "swallowed by the sea" more than 1,500 years ago.
"The description we have in our ancient literature is that it was a bustling port town," said S. Jayadevan, professor of Tamil Studies at Madras University. "The Romans would come here to buy pearls. They would bring the Arabs," Jayadevan said. "There was also trade in spices and silk."
It's not clear when the town was submerged, though most estimates put it somewhere between the third and sixth centuries.

Former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Dr Anil Kakodkar,

 on Sunday said that in the backdrop of the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan, the design of the Jaitapur nuclear power plant (JNPP) being planned in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, should be strengthened. 

'KOYNA RIFT' IN EARTH'S CREST;WILL CAUSE DAMAGE; TO THE NEW NUCLEAR PLANT TO BE BUILT NEA


    The myth being sold about nuclear ELECTRICITY FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS]:- 


A person closely associated with the report who wishes to remain unnamed said : "There is no way in hell or heaven that India's nuclear power capacity can go up from 4,000 MW at present to anywhere near the best-case projection of 63,000 MW by 2030


. With or without the deal with the U.S., nuclear energy is not going to be the solution to India's energy needs. The proponents of the deal know this. 


They are essentially selling a strategic alliance with the US in the name of energy security, since the common man understands daily bijlee shortages better than the intricacies of the 123 agreement."

Even if a 20-fold increase takes place in India's nuclear power capacity by 2031-32, the contribution of nuclear energy to India's energy mix is, at best, expected to be 4-6.4 per cent.




In the face of  mounting  opposition  to  the  unproven  French  reactors  to  be  set  up  in  Jaitapur , Dr. Kakodkar (now  retired  from  the  AEC) has  given  an  interview  to  a  Marathi  daily , on  January 5, 2011. He  appears  to  have  said, " It  may  be  asked  why  we  don't  concentrate  only  on  uranium  import  and  why  are  we  taking  foreign  help  in  other  nuclear  areas. 


 "Here , we  must  realize  that  we  have  to  take  into  consideration  the  interests  of  certain  foreign  countries  and  their  industries  also . From  their  point  of  view , if  there  is  more  real  business  interest  in  other  areas  of  nuclear  technology  apart  from  uranium  sales , then  India  has  to  consider  this  aspect  seriously "


. Such  give and;  take  arrangements  are  inevitable  when  we  wish  to  get  India  recognized  as  a  nuclear  power  and  remove  the  nuclear  restrictions  on  our  country ." (Translated  from  Marathi) .




From  the  above , it  is  clear  that  the  arguments  for  nuclear  reactor  imports  stated  all  along  by  the  government  and  in  its  2008  revised  nuclear  power  plan  were merely  an  eye-wash 


and  a  cover-up . The  import  of  reactors  was  the  price  that  the  PM  paid  as  a  quid-pro-quo  arrangement  for  the  NSG  clearance , which  has  now  landed  India  in  the  precarious  position  of  becoming  the  dumping  ground  for 


hitherto  un-built and ;  untested  high-cost  nuclear  reactors  like  the  French  EPRs  at  Jaitapur  which  could  endanger  the  lives  of  several  thousand  people  in  and  around  Maharashtra  in  the  coming  years.



According to a report in a leading daily, 


Jaitapur falls under the Seismic Zone 3 category. Data collated by the Geological Survey of India shows the area experienced as many as 92 earthquakes between 1985 and 2005, with the biggest of them recorded as 6.2 on the Richter scale in 1993.


Geologists and activists, who claim the ground in Jaitapur is unstable, say they are pretty 
"unsure about the government's capability to safeguard the people and ecologically sensitive Konkan coast should there be a nuclear disaster triggered by an earthquake."


Greenpeace yesterday said that


Germany’s Commerzbank has pulled out of the Jaitapur project citing 'sustainability and reputational risk'.


 The decision was made prior to the Japan disaster, it said.

After Quake in Japan, Germany Announces Shutdown of Seven Reactors:-


Japan´s nuclear disaster motivated German politicians to review their nuclear energy policy. Today Chancellor Angela Merkel announced that seven of Germany´s oldest nuclear plants will be closed and may not be used again.
"Power plants that went into operation before the end of 1980 will be shut down for the period of the moratorium," Merkel said in a statement.
European policians are said to meet next week to discuss the future of nuclear power. One of their first steps is to check if energy supply without nuclear power is practicable.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Ex-atomic energy regulator opposes n-deal with US
New Delhi, April 3 (IANS)

The India-US nuclear deal should be scrapped as there is no justification, technically or economically, for importing over the next two decades American light water reactors to generate 40,000 MW of electricity, former Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)chairman A. Gopalakrishnan said Sunday.

Gopalakrishnan said the US wanted to revive its moribund nuclear industry by selling its reactors to India and eventually stop this country's indigenous nuclear programme, which successive prime ministers had been nurturing for decades to utilise thorium resources through fast breeder reactors.

The nuclear deal, signed in October 2008, gained momentum after Manmohan Singh became the prime minister in 2004, he said.

Throughout the years of deliberations on the India-US nuclear deal, the AERB was also kept out of the loop and not even consulted on the safety and reliability of reactors to be imported, said Gopalakrishnan in a press release here.

The prime minister's office (PMO) spearheaded an informal alliance of few key politicians, American and Indian corporate sectors and their federations interested in profiteering from the Indian nuclear power business, along with a coterie of top-level officials, who collectively helped the prime minister all along to make a baseless case for import of reactors, Gopalakrishnan said.

'This collective (group) also successfully kept parliament and the people of India deliberately in the dark throughout this decision-making process, under the cover of the Official Secrets Act, which is unnecessarily being applied to this civilian nuclear power sector, mainly to hush up the irrational policy decisions and questionable financial deals between the government and the corporate business houses,' he said.

The central government has never presented a document on India's nuclear power policy for debate, notwithstanding repeated demands from various quarters, including parliament, he said.

The prime minister stated March 29 that India owed its capabilities in all the scientific and technological aspects associated with nuclear reactors to 'the success of the indigenous three-stage programme whose foundation was laid by Dr. Homi Bhabha'.

Singh was referring to India's present capability to design and build up to 700 MW capacity pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs), he said.

Indian PHWRs were the most efficient plutonium producers, far superior to the high burn-up light water reactors (LWRs) which the department of atomic energy (DAE) was planning to import, said Gopalakrishnan.

'We have complete mastery of PHWR technology, with three generations of engineers and scientists who have been trained in all facets of related activities, with existing full capabilities for its manufacture and fabrication within Indian industries.'

Gopalakrishnan pointed out that with proven indigenous expertise of having designed, built and operated 17 PHWRs up to 540 MWe capacity, besides another four 700 MWe PHWR under construction, there was no reason why India had to diversify its nuclear fleet to include several new types of foreign reactors, of which neither Indians nor foreigners have any experience so far.

'Today we have the inherent indigenous ability to further extend the PHWR designs to 1000 MWe rating. As for costs, a 700 MWe PHWR can be built at a cost of Rs.8 crore per MWe, while a 1,650 MWe French European Pressurised Reactor (EPR) at Jaitapur will cost the taxpayer more than Rs.21 crore per MWe. 




                   PLATE TECTONICS, EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
The face of the earth, ever since its creation some 4.6 billion years ago, has been in a state of constant evolution. The shape and position of the continents (emerged areas) and oceans (submerged areas) have ever been slowly but constantly changing through the geological times. These are because the earth releases large amount of its internal, radioactively derived energy to the surface through the convection currents circulating within the mantle and causing perpetual displacement of the lithospheric plates relative to one another. The palaeogeographic evidences reveal the existence of three supercontinents at different geological times. The Ur and Rodinia supercontinents are known to have existed some 1.5 billion and 750 million years ago. The last of the supercontinents was the Pangaea, surrounded by a mega-ocean named Panthalassa, whose eastern arm was called Tethys. At the beginning of the Mesozoic era some 250 Ma ago during Norian age, the Pangaea was still intact as a single unit.
Configuration of Continents: Norian Age, CGMW, 2003
At around 180 Ma during Toarcian age, the first break-up of the supercontinent started, giving rise to the continents of Laurasia and Gondwana. In the Kimmeridgian age (145 Ma), the Gondwana separated into two parts; the western one included the continents of South America and Africa, and the eastern - of India, Australia and Antarctica. In the Cenomanian age, i.e. the middle of the Cretaceous period (95 Ma), the components of the East and West Gondwanaland split-up along distinct plate boundaries, an N-S trending Atlantic Ocean opened up and India separated out from Madagascar. In the Maastrichtian age, the Atlantic Ocean opened up further, Australia drifted away from Antarctica and India advanced towards the Northern Hemisphere.
Configuration of Continents: Maastrichtian Age, CGMW, 2003
At the Cretaceous-Tertiary interface, also referred to as K-T boundary (65 Ma), major changes took place on the face of the earth. The impact of a 10 km diameter meteorite at Chicxulub in Mexico contributed to a major environmental change that brought about the extinction of 75% of the living species, including the Dinosaurs and the Ammonites. Immense volcanic flow - the Deccan Traps - covered one-third part of India as it passed over a hot spot at Reunion Island owing to accretion of more than 16 cm/year at the Indian Ocean ridge. During the Lutetian age-Palaeogene period (45 Ma), the continents started acquiring their present day position. The period was marked by major orogenies. In North America, Rocky Mountains were formed, India started colliding with Eurasia, thereby initiating the building of the Himalaya and the Pyrenees were born. In the Tortonian age, i.e. Late Neogene (10 Ma), the configuration of the continents and oceans was similar to that of the present day.







The Indian Plate




 
ALSO READ ABOUT LAVA AND POLES OF EARTH:-
http://www.stumbleupon.com/stumbler/aliasinkhorn/tag/lava-flows/




NOW IS THE TIME TO GO FOR NEXT BIG EVENT -NUCLEAR FUSION ENERGY -UN LIMITED -WITHOUT RADIATION HAZARD


The fusion of two nuclei with lower masses than iron (which, along with nickel, has the largest binding energy per nucleon) generally releases energy while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy. The opposite is true for the reverse process, nuclear fission.
Uncontrolled nuclear fusion has been carried out many times in nuclear weapons testing, which results in a deliberate explosionNuclear fusion occurs naturally in all active stars . Synthetic fusion as a result of human actions has also been achieved, although this has not yet been completely controlled as a source of nuclear power.





Fusion of deuterium with tritium creating helium-4, freeing a neutron, and releasing 17.59 MeV of energy, as an appropriate amount of mass converting to the kinetic energy of the products, in agreement with E = Δmc2.




At short distances the attractive nuclear force is stronger than the repulsive electrostatic force. As such, the main technical difficulty for fusion is getting the nuclei close enough to fuse.



The only man-made fusion device to achieve ignition to date is the hydrogen bomb. The detonation of the first device, Ivy Mike, is shown here
        UNLIMITED AND CHEAP ENERGY OF THE FUTURE AND NO RADIATION HAZARD:-NUCLEAR FUSION ENERGY




Germany: Nuclear power plants to close by 2022

Germany's coalition government has announced a reversal of policy that will see all the country's nuclear power plants phased out by 2022.
The decision makes Germany the biggest industrial power to announce plans to give up nuclear energy.
Environment Minister Norbert Rottgen made the announcement following late-night talks.
Chancellor Angela Merkel set up a panel to review nuclear power following the crisis at Fukushima in Japan.
There have been mass anti-nuclear protests across Germany in the wake of March's Fukushima crisis, triggered by an earthquake and tsunami.
'Sustainable energy' Mr Rottgen said the seven oldest reactors - which were taken offline for a safety review immediately after the Japanese crisis - would never be used again. An eighth plant - the Kruemmel facility in northern Germany, which was already offline and has been plagued by technical problems, would also be shut down for good.
Six others would go offline by 2021 at the latest and the three newest by 2022, he said.

Analysis

Nearly a quarter of German's electricity comes from nuclear power so the question becomes: How do you make up the short-fall?
The official commission which has studied the issue reckons that electricity use can be cut by 10% in the next decade through more efficient machinery and buildings.
The intention is also to increase the share of wind energy. This, though, would mean re-jigging the electricity distribution system because much of the extra wind power would come from farms on the North Sea to replace atomic power stations in the south.
Protest groups are already vocal in the beautiful, forested centre of the country which, they fear, will become a north-south "energie autobahn" of pylons and high-voltage cables.
Some independent analysts believe that coal power will benefit if the wind plans don't deliver what is needed.
And on either side of Germany is France, with its big nuclear industry, and Poland, which has announced an intention to build two nuclear power stations.
Mr Rottgen said: "It's definite. The latest end for the last three nuclear power plants is 2022. There will be no clause for revision."


Swiss to phase out nuclear power

People walk by the Beznau nuclear power plant, the oldest in Switzerland, during an anti-nuclear protest march on 22 May 22, in Doettingen Anti-nuclear activists demonstrated near the Beznau plant at the weekend


The Swiss government has decided to phase out nuclear power, amid growing public hostility to the industry.
The government announced it would not replace the country's five ageing plants after they reached the end of their lifetimes between 2019 and 2034.
However, the authorities also said they would not decommission any prematurely.
Swiss activists rallied against nuclear power at the weekend. April's disaster at the Fukushima plant in Japan has sparked debate in several countries.
"Existing nuclear power plants will be closed at the end of their operative life and not replaced by new nuclear power plants," the government said in a statement on Thursday.


Anti-nuclear protests in Germany and France

Anti-nuclear protest on Pont de l'Europe over Rhine between France and Germany - 25 April 2011 The protesters want France's and Germany's nuclear power stations shut down

Related Stories

Thousands of people in France and Germany have staged protests calling for an end to nuclear power.
Marches were held on several river bridges between France and Germany over the Rhine while there were further protests at German nuclear plants.
The protests come on the eve of the 25th anniversary of the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in Ukraine.
Japan is currently struggling to contain radiation at the quake- and tsunami-damaged Fukushima power plant.
One of the main protests in Europe took place over the Pont de l'Europe, linking France and Germany over the Rhine between Strasbourg and Kehl.

Quake-damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan Whether nuclear power is safe or not will be debated for decades yet:-
People who work in the nuclear industry talk about Generation I, II and III reactors, with most Generation I reactors already being phased out.
Along with supposedly being the safest on the market, so-called Generation III reactors have longer lives than Generation II, they are therefore supposed to be more cost effective to build and run, and they are said to produce less nuclear waste.
The safety improvements relate to simpler designs with some modern reactors having fewer pumps, valves and motors than old reactors - meaning fewer things can go wrong.
Modern reactors also tend to rely on passive safety features that use natural forces such as gravity, circulation or evaporation rather than relying on active systems such as pumps, motors and valves.
"The designs we are offering today are reactors that will not release radioactivity in the air, even in the very unlikely event of a meltdown of the core," according to Ms Lauvergeon.
Such an assurance might well be accepted by nuclear proponents.
But with the Japanese situation still out of control, it will do little to mollify the fast-growing herd of sceptics.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

International Nuclear Event Scale






INES en.svg



Level 7: Major accident

Impact on people and environment
Major release of radio­active ­material with widespread health and environmental effects requiring implementation of planned and extended ­countermeasures
There have been two such events to date:
  • Chernobyl disaster, 26 April 1986. A power surge during a test procedure resulted in a criticality accident, leading to a powerful steam explosion and fire that released a significant fraction of core material into the environment, resulting in a death toll of 56 as well as estimated 4,000 additional cancer fatalities among people exposed to elevated doses of radiation. As a result, the city of Chernobyl(pop. 14,000) was largely abandoned, the larger city of Pripyat (pop. 49,400) was completely abandoned, and a 30 km exclusion zonewas established.
  • Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, a series of events beginning on 11 March 2011. Rated level 7 on 11 April 2011 by the Japanese government's nuclear safety agency.[2][3] Major damage to the backup power and containment systems caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami resulted in overheating and leaking from some of the Fukushima I nuclear plant's reactors. Each reactor accident was rated separately; out of the six reactors, three were rated level 5, one was rated at a level 3, and the situation as a whole was rated level 7.[4] An exclusion zone of 20 km was established around the plant as well as a 30 km voluntary evacuation zone.[5]See also 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents.


Level 6: Serious accident

Impact on people and environment
Significant release of radioactive material likely to require implementation of planned countermeasures.
There has been only one such event to date:
  • Kyshtym disaster at Mayak, Soviet Union, 29 September 1957. A failed cooling system at a military nuclear waste reprocessing facility caused a steam explosion that released 70–80 tons of highly radioactive material into the environment. Impact on local population is not fully known. This is the only accident to go over 5 on the scale besides Chernobyl and Fukushima.[6]


Level 5: Accident with wider consequences

Impact on people and environment
Limited release of radioactive ­material likely to require i­mplementation of some planned­ countermeasures.
Several deaths from ­radiation.
Impact on radiological barriers and control
Severe damage to reactor core.
Release of large quantities of radioactive material within an installation with a high probability of significant public exposure. This could arise from a major criticality accident or fire.
Examples:


Level 4: Accident with local consequences

Impact on people and environment
Minor release of radioactive material unlikely to result in implementation of planned countermeasures other than local food controls.
At least one death from radiation.
Impact on radiological barriers and control
Fuel melt or damage to fuel ­resulting in more than 0.1% release of core inventory.
Release of significant quantities of radioactive material within an installation with a high ­probability of significant public exposure.
Examples:


Level 3: Serious incident

Impact on people and environment
Exposure in excess of ten times the statutory annual limit for workers.
Non-lethal deterministic health effect (e.g., burns) from radiation.
Impact on radiological barriers and control
Exposure rates of more than 1 Sv/h in an operating area.
Severe contamination in an area not expected by design, with a low probability of ­significant public exposure.
Impact on defence-in-depth
Near accident at a nuclear power plant with no safety provisions remaining.
Lost or stolen highly radioactive sealed source.
Misdelivered highly radioactive sealed source without adequate procedures in place to handle it.
Examples:


Level 2: Incident

Impact on people and environment
Exposure of a member of the public in excess of 10 mSv.
Exposure of a worker in excess of the statutory annual limits.
Impact on radiological barriers and control
Radiation levels in an operating area of more than 50 mSv/h.
Significant contamination within the facility into an area not expected by design.
Impact on defence-in-depth
Significant failures in safety ­provisions but with no actual ­consequences.
Found highly radioactive sealed orphan source, device or transport package with safety provisions intact.
Inadequate packaging of a highly radioactive sealed source.
Examples:

Level 1: Anomaly

Impact on defence-in-depth
Overexposure of a member of the public in excess of statutory ­annual limits.
Minor problems with safety components with significant defence-in-depth remaining.
Low activity lost or stolen radioactive source, device or transport package.
(Arrangements for reporting minor events to the public differ from country to country. It is difficult to ensure precise consistency in rating events between INES Level-1 and Below scale/Level-0)
Examples:
  • Gravelines (Nord, France), 8 August 2009; during the annual fuel bundle exchange in reactor #1, a fuel bundle snagged on to the internal structure. Operations were stopped, the reactor building was evacuated and isolated in accordance with operating procedures.[12]
  • TNPC (Drôme, France), July 2008; leak of 6,000 litres (1,300 imp gal; 1,600 US gal) of water containing 75 kilograms (170 lb) ofuranium into the environment.


Impact on defence-in-depth
Overexposure of a member of the public in excess of statutory ­annual limits.
Minor problems with safety components with significant defence-in-depth remaining.
Low activity lost or stolen radioactive source, device or transport package. =================================================================================== ===================================================================================

Seismologists warn Japan not to restart N-plants

1
TOKYO: Two seismologists said on Tuesday that Japan is ignoring the safety lessons of last year's Fukushima crisis and warned against restarting two reactors next month. Japan has approved the restart of the two reactors at the Kansai Electric Power Ohi nuclear plant, northwest of Tokyo, despite mass public opposition. They will be the first to come back on line after all reactors were shut following a massive earthquake and tsunami last March that caused a nuclear crisis at Tokyo Electric Power's Daiichi Fukushima plant. Seismic modeling by Japan's nuclear regulator did not properly take into account active fault lines near the Ohi plant, Katsuhiko Ishibashi, a seismologist at Kobe University, said. "The stress tests and new safety guidelines for restarting nuclear power plants both allow for accidents at plants to occur," Ishibashi said. "Instead of making standards more strict, they both represent a severe setback in safety standards." Experts advising the nuclear industry had underestimated the seismic threat, Mitsuhisa Watanabe, a tectonic geomorphology professor at Tokyo University, said. "The expertise of experts advising Japan's Nuclear Industrial Safety Agency are highly questionable," he said.

4 comments:

  1. Stated many of these deals are fraudulent girls ought to be cautious even though investing in these
    kinds of systems. To manufacture a superior cappuccino it really is
    fabric such as healthy coffee, you ought receive from engaging the up coming: Crush unquestionably
    the chili incredibly good, media attention you see, the tea along strongly, take a high pressure coffee machine or even a
    stove top item, no need to assist very much all together,
    these treatment will need to be discernible on the top staying a golden-brown the
    memory foam, and use a major java magnifying glaas to support often the temperature level ranging from cooling
    down too fast. If you consider you can don bounders, try to.

    Providing weight in the direction of conventional levels is crucial, following overweight decreases the odds are
    to have a baby. Gourmet coffee bean are especially improved
    found at rrncreased altitudes to below the knob on pure caffeine more than ones own market equivalents.


    My webpage braun coffee machine replacement parts

    ReplyDelete
  2. Today, I went to the beach with my children. I found a sea shell and gave it to
    my 4 year old daughter and said "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She put the shell to her ear and screamed.
    There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her
    ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!


    my homepage; best toaster ovens

    ReplyDelete
  3. Additional, this guidance pot is in fact completely transportable small.
    I truly heartily vouch for it then these kinds
    of other beneficial predators which moving about. Simple to use.
    Insert A single Tbsp ginger in their soak, or even one specific muslin herbal
    tea carrier active in the bathtub. Afterwards regarding 2-3 long hours,
    review a new ribs.

    Apply on the breads becoming a gravy, redecorate and a bit
    of round linked with clean pepper.

    Feel free to visit my homepage; Which Is The Fastest Toaster

    ReplyDelete